Linking the Researchers, Developing the Innovations Manuscripts submittal opens till 10 May 2024. Please submit your papers at or

  • Volume 2019

    Performance Enhacement of Heterogeneous Celluar Networks using Vertical Handover
    (International Journal of Engineering Works)

    Vol. 6, Issue 02, PP. 44-49, February 2019
    Keywords: Handover, Cellular Networks, HetNets, 3G, 4G, GSM, WLAN, QoS, RSS

    Download PDF


     In seamless and fast mobility, smooth handover is one of the major challenges in small cell heterogeneous cellular networks. This paper focuses on the phenomenon of vertical handover for wireless heterogeneous networks. This class of networks can be grounded on the parameter values such as bandwidth availability, received signal strength, call request/served per unit time (mean), power dissipation, consumption of power, duration of mobile station presence, network security, cost of the network and velocity of the mobile station. The proposed system, in this paper, is characterized on the basis of four network parameters which are scrutinized as per a pre-defined criterion. Thereafter, vertical handover occurs at the most suitable among the available four networks. In order to achieve the objective, various parameters are applied for the vertical handover decision and implementation. Furthermore, the final decision is taken on the basis of individual network’s call blocking probability considering the aforesaid parameters.  


    1. Saad Iqbal: Telecommunication Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
    2. Alamgir Khan: Telecommunication Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
    3. Hassan Wasim Khan: University of Engineering and Technology Mardan, Pakistan
    4. Imraan Khan: University of Engineering and Technology Mardan, Pakistan
    5. Fazal Muhammad: City University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

    Full Text


    Saad Iqbal Alamgir Khan Hassan Wasim Khan Imraan Khan and Fazal Muhammad Performance Enhancement of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks Using Vertical Handover International Journal of Engineering Works Vol. 6 Issue 02 PP. 44-49 February 2019


    1. F. Muhammad, Z. H. Abbas, and F. Y. Li, “Cell Association with Load Balancing in Non-uniform Heterogeneous Cellular Networks: Coverage Probability and Rate Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,, vol. 66, no.6, pp. 5241–5255, Jun. 2017.

    2. Nasser, N., Hasswa, A., & Hassanein, H.(2006). Handoffs in fourth generation heterogeneous networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 44(10), 96-103.

    3. Hasswa, A., Nasser, N., & Hassanein, H.(2007). A seamless context aware architecture for fourth generation wireless networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 43(3), 1035-1049.

    4. Ghaderi, M., & Boutaba, R. (2006). Call admission control in mobile cellular networks: a comprehensive survey. Wireless communications and mobile computing, 6(1), 69-93.

    5. Deng, D. J., & Yen, H. C. (2005). Quality-of-service provisioning system for multimedia transmission in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 23(6), 1240-1252

    6. Singhrova, A., & Prakash, N.(2007, September).A review of vertical handoff decision algorithm in heterogeneous networks.In Proceedingsofthe4thinternationalconferenceonmobiletechnology, applications, and systemsand the 1st international symposium on Computer human interaction in mobile technology (pp. 68-71). ACM.

    7. Joe, I. A Mobility-based Prediction Algorithm for vertical handover in hybrid wireless network (2010).

    8. Enrique Stevens-Navarro and Vincent W.S. Wong, Comparison between Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks, 2006 IEEE.

    9. Singhrova, A., & Prakash, N. (2012). Vertical handoff decision algorithm for improved quality of service in heterogeneous wireless networks. IET communications, 6(2), 211-223.

    10. Zhu, F., & McNair, J. (2004, March). Optimizations for vertical handoff decision algorithms. In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004. WCNC. 2004 IEEE (Vol. 2, pp. 867-872). IEEE.

    11. Chen, W. T., & Shu, Y. Y. (2005, March). Active application oriented vertical handoff in next-generation wireless networks.In IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2005 (Vol.3, pp. 1383-1388). IEEE.

    12. Zhang, W. (2004, March). Handover decision using fuzzy MADM in heterogeneous networks. In Wireless communications and networking conference, 2004. WCNC. 2004 IEEE (Vol. 2, pp. 653-658). IEEE.

    13. Song, Q., & Jamalipour, A. (2005, May). A network selection mechanism for next generation networks. In IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2005. ICC 2005. 2005 (Vol. 2, pp. 1418-1422).

    14. Pawar, P., Wac, K., Van Beijnum, B.J.,Maret,P.,vanHalteren,A.,&Hermens,H.(2008, March). Context-awaremiddlewarearchitectureforverticalhandoversupporttomulti-homednomadicmobile services. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on Applied computing (pp. 481-488). ACM.

    15. Dekleva, S., Shim, J. P., Varshney, U., & Knoerzer, G. (2007). Evolution and emerging issues in mobile wireless networks. Communications of the ACM, 50(6), 38-43.

    16. Chen, W. T., Liu, J. C., & Huang, H. K. (2004, July). An adaptive scheme for vertical handoff in wireless Overlay networks.In Parallel and Distributed Systems.ICPADS 2004.Proceedings.Tenth International Conference on (pp. 541-548). IEEE.

    17. Isabona, Joseph & Bright, Chinule & Gregory Peter, Isaiah.” Radio Field Strength Propagation Data and Pathloss calculation Methods in UMTS Network.” (2013).