According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychological Association, Personality Traits are "prominent aspects of personality that are exhibited in a variety of important personal and social contexts”. In other words people have different abilities in their behavior that determine their actions. For example, a friendly person is likely to listen well and show interest in others generally . Personality can be explain to an individuals characteristic different thinking patterens, emotional expression, behavior styles, with the psychological tools, hidden or apparent behind those patterns .
The personality factors can be divided into two types (1) Biological factors which are inherited by someone in genes which influences someone’s personality directly, it includes nervous system, endrocrine glands and physique, (2) Environmental factors which affects someone’s personality from environment, it concludes home, school, job, experience, success and failures .
What is Big Five Personality Traits? These are defnd as underlying and important characteristics that mark the someone’s overall persdonality. In the trait of openness people have a chance and capacity to learn new experience and new things. In this trait, someone has traits of being very creative and having many interests. In the trait of conscientiousness, people are consistant and fast. They cotain the traits which include being methodic, comprehensive, and well organized. In the trait of Extraversion, the extraverts people obtain all their energy interacting with others, whereas introverters have all their energy from themselves because they can not communicate/interact with others. Extraversion person have traits of talkative, confident and energetic. The people who have trait of Agreeableness are very friendly and helping. Neuroticism is a trait which is sometimes named as emotional stability. This relates to someone’s emotional constancy and degree of negative emotions. People having more score on neuroticism often have negative thinking, negative emotions and emotional instability. This traits include tense and being moody . Emotional Intelegence is defind as the ability of someone’s how they manage their emotions and perceive their emotions and stimulate someone’s personal growth. This traits includes abilities of perception of emotions, using these emotions, understanding these emotions and manage them well .
Five aspects of emotional intelleigence are: Self awareness is to understand our emotions, stimuli and their effect on other people around. In this state, an individual is able to monitor and understand his own state of emotions. Self Regulation is to control your desires, it involves to control your emotion instead of expressing all the emotions. In this situation, someone can think before reacting and control emotions. Internal motivation involves individuals motivation to respond some situation according to his internal motives. Empathy includes the charaterisctics of individual to understand the emotional reactions of others. A person can only know and understand other’s emotions if he/she is aware of his/her own emotions. Social Skills involve individial’s capacity to create common ground for others, create relationship, shape networks in socity .
Salovery and Mayer identified factors of emotional intelligence which includes (1) identifying emotions is defind as to be able to identify and recogonize the emotions and they have happened in real situation. (2) Emotional Facilitation of thought is the ability to react to emotions. (3) Understanding emotions is the factor that includes the ability of an individual to infer an emotion, its causes and give its meaning. (4) Managing Emotions is the ability to manage your own emotions and react to other’s emotions effectively according to the situation .
Self-esteem is success divided by self-importance. Self-esteem can be enhenced by having more successes and maintained by avoiding failures, but it can also be improved by having less ambitious aims. Self-esteem is related to a number of life factors. Higher self-esteem involves experiencing educational success, feeling happy and satisfied, choosing healthy lifestyle choices, choosing rewarding relationships, and showing effective coping skills. Low self-esteem involves several mental and physical disorders such as diet disorders, depression, and anxiety. In addition, low self-esteem may result from loneliness, interpersonal problems, gang membership, obesesity, suicidal tendencies .
Adloescene is a very important part of everyone’s life time. If a man is having a healthy environment and utilize this time well in life, he can achieve successes. But if someone faces problems and difficulties in this time, it will affect his slef esteem. Beauy and Physical appearance is also very important factor and it creates the attraction in personality. Better look can attract other people and improve self esteem. Ignorance or praise by others also influence self esteem. Support by family and friends is also very important. Adolescent people like to be praised by others and it will enhace self esteem. The parents should provide a healthy and good environment for their child so he can share all the things with other family members. Know the area you can excel-the adolescent have ability to concentrate on their future goals, aware of their abilities in their personality and adjustment of these abalities and capacities according to the environment. Understang and try to bring out all positive qualities-all the human in the world have different and unique abilities and capacities. The individual can use these abilities to get good from environment condition and polish these abilities and skills to use them in a good and constructive way .
II. Literature Review
The major aim of this research work was to identify the relationship Big Personality Traits & emotional intelligence and self esteem among student of college. Some of the liretature is presented below which support our research.
P.N. Lopes et al carried out a research (2002) “Emotional intelligence, personality, and the perceived quality of social relationships”. This work has main focus on relations among emotional intelligence, abilities, interpersonal relationships and personality traits. This study used a sample of 103 college students. It has found that personality traits and emotional intelligence are related. Those individuals who scored well on subscale of managing their emotions, have good relations with others, have well parental support, and less likely to report negative connections in relations with close friends. These connections were statistically very important even controlling for Five Big Personality Traits and verbal intelligence.
Karen Van der Zee (2002) et al. conducted a study on the topic “The relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the Big Five”. The major aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of self- and other ratings of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and personality. This study used a sample of 116 students of a college. The analysis factor for this study showed major dimensions of emotional intelegence such as Empathy, Autonomy and emotional control. There was only a small evidence found for relationship among academic and emotional intelegence. Academic intelegnce was small and have a very inconsistenly relationship to the emotional intelligence showing both positive and negative interrelations. It showed a strong relationship between emotional intelligence and Big Five traits especially Extraversion and emotional stability. The emotional intelligence dimensions were able to predict both academic and social success above traditional indicators of academic intelligence and personality.
K. laidra et al conducted a research (2006) “Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement”. This study wasa study from students of elementary to secondary. The major objective of this study was examine intelligence and personality traits as predictors of academic achievement. A sample of 3618 students were taken( having 1746 boys and 1872 girls) from all over Estonia school children. The Intelligence, as measured by the raven’s standard progressive matrices, among personality traits measured by self-reports on the Estonian big five questionnaire for children. The results demonstrated that agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness were related positively and neuroticism was correlated negatively with GPA in almost every grade. When all variables (measure) were used into the regression model , the intelligence was still the strongest GPA predictor, followed by agreeableness in grades of 2 to 4 and conscientiousness in grades 6 to 12. There was a very small percentage of varience in GPA because of interactions between predictor variables and age. This suggested that academic achievement trusts mainly almost on the same mechanisms through the school years.
Avsec et al. conducted a research on the topic “The relationship of trait emotional intelligence with big five in Croatian and Slovene university student sample”. The main objective of this research work was to analyze the relationship between big five personality traits and emotional intelligence. Two samples of university students were taken for this study from Solvenian and Croatian universities. The study showed that the extraversion and consciousness are very important predictors for express and label emotions scale. The big five personality traits are able to explain the quantity of the modification in managing and controlling emotions.
Fauzia Khurshid et al carried out a research study on the topic “Relationship between personality’s big five factors and emotional intelligence among the private and the public sector universities students”. The study was basically designed to dig out the relationship between personality Big Five factors i.e.Agreeableness,Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism with Emotional Intelligence. The research was commenced into two parts, part one was concerned with the pilot study. For this study a sample of random 80 students were selected from private and public universities. The study instruments were the personality big five factors the Mini Marker Set of 40 item for university students, for Emotional Intelligence TEQue-SF of 30 items were used in the study. The result of this study showed that all selected items of both scales were significantly co-related with their respective scales. A sample of 200 students including 67 males and 133 females was selected for part 2 of this study. The age of the selected sample students was in the range from 17 years to 27 years. The result showed that personality factors Agreeableness, Extraversion and Openness have positive correlation with emotional intelligence whereas Neuroticism have negatively correlation with emotional intelligence personality factor Conscientiousness have insignificant correlated to emotional intelligence. The students from private universities had higher score on extraversion and smaller score on neurotism, openness and conscientiousness as compared to public sector universities. The Students from private universities have higher score on emotional intelligence as compared to public sector universities.
The present study is baed correlation. A cross sectional survey research design has been used to collect the data/information from respondents. The target sample of this study consists of 170 female of 3rd year and 4th year students from government Degree College Kotla Arab Ali Khan, Gujrat, Pakistan. The convenience sampling technique has been used to collect the data from the respondents. In this study three standardized questionnaire were prepared and used to measure the Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among the college students. The big Five Inventory (Goldberg 1993) was used to measure the personality traits. It is a self-report inventory designed to measure the big five dimensions (44 items total), and consist of short phrases with relatively accessible vocabulary. The BFI is rated using 5-point Likert scale that ranges from 1=Disagree Strongly to 5=Agree Strongly. After the completion of assessment, the students rating were summed for each of five personality traits with reverse scores on Neuroticism, Extraversion,Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. For measuring Emotional Intelligence the Genos EI Inventory (Concise) has been designed to measure how often you believe you demonstrate emotionally intelligent behaviors at work. There was no right or wrong answers. There are five possible responses for each statement. Every respondants were required to circle the number that corresponds to their answer where...1 = Almost Never 2 = Seldom 3 = Sometimes 4 = Usually 5 = Almost Always. For measuring self-esteem the Rosenberg’s self-esteem (1965) scale the basic scale consists of just ten statements of opinion about oneself and one is simply asked whether one agrees with the sentiment expressed or not. Each of the 10 items is rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 = strongly agree to 4 = strongly disagree. whereas, the demographic sheet has been used to collect the demographic data from the respondents in term of their Name, Age, Gender, semester, department etc.
The study is used to find out the relationship between big five personality traits & Emotional intelligence among the college students. The target population of current study was comprised of students from the Government College Kotla Arab Ali khan Gujrat degree programmed of 3rd year and 4rth year with age range of (19-20). The convenience sampling was used for data collection from respondents. The three standardized scale were given provided to the students in the sample.The first scale was big five inventory scale, which is used to measure the personality traits of the respondents. The second scale was Genos emotional intelligence inventory (self-Assessment) scale, which measured the emotional intelligence among the respondents. The third scale was Rosenberg Self-esteem scale which measured the self-esteem among the respondents. The main purpose and objectives of this study was explained to all respondents. Before the administration of the scale the instructions were given to the respondents and asked them to read each statement carefully and select suitable option according to their own opinion. All respondents were assured that their responses will be kept confidential. Some of the questionnaires were taken back after sometimes and other filled out questionnaires were collected from students on mutually agreed dates and class times. After collection, the data analysis was made by using SPSS-16 (Statistical Package for social sciences). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to compute Mean and Standard Deviation of variables and values of the respondents on each dimension of the scale. The Person Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was employed to find out the relationship between Personality traits& Emotional intelligence and Self-esteem among students.
The study was conducted to find out the Big Five Personality Traits & Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among the college students. Three standardized scales Big Five Inventory Scale, Genos emotional intelligence inventory (self-Assessment) scale and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (1965) has been used to measure the relationship between Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among the College Students of Gujrat. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to find out the relationship between Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among the college Students.
Table I Frequency (f) and percentage (%) values of the characteristics of demographic variables.
The above table shows the demographic variables including Age ranging from 19 to 20 with (55.9& 44.1%) gender including female (100%) class including 3rd year (55.9%) and 4rth year (44.1%).
Table II Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient between Personality Traits & Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem (N=170)
Note.*p<.05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001.
As the above table shows that there is Significant Negative correlation between Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence (-.19**), Significant Negative correlation between Personality Traits and Self-esteem (-.17*), highly significant correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem (.45***). Results indicated that the Correlation between Personality Traits & Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem.
Table III Mean and Standard Deviation of Personality Traits & Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem (N=170)
The above table shows the Mean and Standard Deviation of Big Five Personality Traits& Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem. The mean scores of respondents on Personality Traits (M=1.606, S.D=12.16), Emotional Intelligence (M=42.69, S.D=7.154), and Self-esteem (M=21.14, 3.398).
The present study was aimed to investigate the Big Five Personality Trait& Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among college students. In the present study a sample of 170 students, age range from 19 to 20 were selected from a degree college in Gujrat. The convenience sampling was used for the collection of data from respondents. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient test was used to find out the Correlation between Big Five Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among college students.
The main objective of the study was to measures the Big Five Personality Traits among the college students. The result presented in table III showed the Mean scores of respondents on Big Five personality traits (M=1.606, S.D=12.16). The present findings are in line with the previous studies which have also reported similar results in this particular field of study. The previous study indicated that a college is a place where students grow together and shows their involvement in important relationship with peers and teachers, students get benefits from these relationships and have a positive self-respect, make healthy and positive personality traits. Big Five traits, indicators of social and academic success in life. If an individual have a positive traits he can get success in life and make healthy relationships with others (Zee et al, 2002).
The second objective of the study was to measure the Emotional Intelligence among college students. The result presented in table III showed the Mean scores of respondents on the Emotional Intelligence (M=42.69, S.D=7.154). The previous study suggested that the links between emotional intelligence, measured as a set of abilities, and personality traits, as well as the contribution of both to the perceived quality of one’s interpersonal relationships (P.N. Lopes et al, 2002).
Third objective of the study was to measure the Self-esteem scores among the college students. Weisberg, (2009) suggested that highly emotionally intelligent individuals are likely to experience psychological well being at a higher level than individuals who are low in emotional intelligence. The relationship between emotional intelligence and four aspects of psychological well being (self-acceptance, life satisfaction, somatic complaints and self-esteem). In general, support for the positive association between emotional intelligence and psychological well being components – self-esteem, life satisfaction, and self-acceptance. The findings of this study supported the hypotheses that there is a Correlation between Big Five Traits, Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem.
VII. Limitations and Recommendations
Although the findings of the present research showed significant results, but it may have some limitations and drawbacks in it.
- The data was collected only from the students of one college (4rth year and 3rd year) government college kotla Arab Ali Khan, Gujrat. The students from other colleges were not included in the sample. This could be limiting the generalizability of the results.
- The selected samples for the study included only 4th year and 3rd year students due to short period of time, which also limit the generalizability of the results. The students could not give serious responses on the questionnaires which can also affect the result of the study.
- On the basis of the above limitations there are some suggestions that are given below;
- The present study in this area will provide help to those who are interested to conduct a research in this area in future.
- As it is mentioned earlier that faculties of other colleges were not included. So it is suggested that other faculties must be include in future research, so that the results would be generalized.
This study was a correlation study conducted to find out the “Big Five Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence and self-esteem among the college students”. It was concluded that there is significant Correlation between the above mentioned variables. So it was concluded from the present research that Significant Negative Correlation between personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence and self-esteem, highly Significant Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem.